Ethiopia: The Emblem Of African Valor And Resistance

The Battle of Adwa That Shook Africa

ETHIOPIA - CIRCA 2002:  Battle of Adwa, the first and second battalion of riflemen on Mount Rajo, March 1, 1896. War in Abyssinia, Ethiopia, 19th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

ETHIOPIA – CIRCA 2002: Battle of Adwa, the first and second battalion of riflemen on Mount Rajo, March 1, 1896. War in Abyssinia, Ethiopia, 19th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

The 1st of March, 2017, was the 121th anniversary of the Battle of Adwa in which the Ethiopian Empire defeated the Kingdom of Italy. Not only did this battle secure Ethiopia’s sovereignty but ensured its unique status of being the only African nation not to be colonized following the ‘Scramble for Africa’. The victory at Adwa which resulted in Ethiopia’s victory in the first Ethiopian-Italian war, would also comprise one of the few but notable battles and wars where a non-European army successfully defeated a more technologically advanced European army.

The significance and impact of the victory was not isolated in Ethiopia but resonated globally as it dented notions of African inferiority against the superiority of white Europeans. However, the victory of Adwa would result in unforeseen consequences for Ethiopia and its neighbors. Nevertheless, Adwa remains a great source of pride for Ethiopians and Africans to this day as African scholar Molefe Asante explains:

’Ethiopia became emblematic of African valor and resistance, the bastion of prestige and hope to thousands of Africans who were experiencing the full shock of European conquest and were beginning to search for an answer to the myth of African inferiority.’’

The events leading to Adwa were the culmination of increased Italian aggression following the signing of the Treaty of Wuchale by both Italy and Ethiopia in 1889. The treaty granted Italy the Northern Ethiopian regions of Bogos, Hamasen and Akale-Guzai which are now part of modern day Eritrea and Tigre. Article XVII of the Amharic version stated that the Emperor of Ethiopia ‘could’ conduct all foreign affairs through Italy. However, in the Italian version, the word ‘must’ was used, thereby officially rendering Ethiopia a protectorate under Italy. Emperor Menelik rejected the treaty in 1893 which was met with a military response as Italy began annexing small territories past the Mareb River, which was demarcated as the border for Eritrea.

The victory at Adwa was primarily due to the sheer size of Menelik’s army but also due to Menelik’s calculated preparations and foresight in stockpiling modern weaponry. Mistakes on the part of the Italian Generals whom used inaccurate maps also contributed to the defeat.

Today in Ethiopia, Adwa is celebrated as a national holiday and signifies the prestige that Ethiopia holds among its own people and in Africa. The Battle of Adwa must be seen in the light of other historical events such as the Haitian Revolution (1804), the Battles of Little Bighorn (1876), Isandlwana (1879) and Khartoum (1885). These were successful cases of colonized and oppressed people, who defeated superior armies in their goal to liberate themselves and assert their independence. 

Read the full story By Omar Z.: The Battle that shook Africa



Trump Protests: Side effects of Mass Psychological Manipulation

Protests against Trump’s victory immediately broke out across the nation and spread beyond our borders into the UK; but this is a normal side-effect of mass psychological manipulation.


Reason tells me that it would have been far more feasible for everyone to have refused to vote for these unethical characters than to accept being coerced into picking one and then turn to the streets protesting the outcome!

How the manipulation began; first people were forced to lower their moral standards with a choice of 2 unethical characters, then hit by the “Bait and Switch’” tactics of the unethical vote counting practice that disregards the most votes for “state allowed” votes, they’ll be given a day or two blow off steam, without ever realizing they are being desensitized to accept corruption as the American way.

This kind of manipulation is a Psychological Operation, also known as PSYOP, a proven winner and important force to influence the emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of individuals, groups, and organizations.

PSYOP may be defined broadly as the planned use of communications to influence human attitudes and behavior that support the attainment of national objectives. The form of communication can be as simple as spreading information covertly by word of mouth or through any means of multimedia including social media networks such as facebook and twitter.

First comes the warfare: Psychological Warfare or PSYWAR is simply learning everything about your target, their beliefs, likes, dislikes, strengths, weaknesses, and vulnerabilities; such as what facebook does. Once you know what motivates your target, you are ready to begin psychological operations such as in this political fiasco of mental manipulation of our right to vote turned into a moral obligation.

Full article on Psychological Operations/Warfare written by Major Ed Rouse click here: psyhist